India gate – an indian monument disappears in the smog of the capital. Image: christian hobbie (2019)
India and turkey were long as a parade examples of the laizist state doktrin. But the religious nationalism of the current autocrats is sudden and stalls on old misunderstandings.
The political observers of asia recognize the pregnant parallels of the turkish and indian backlog progressive democracies and their caught. The misunderstandings of the west are already reflected in the perception of the orient as a political space.
That the proud societies are looking for their own ways into modernity, could not surprise. But the emancipatory debates of individual development paths of modern state conceptions were successfully encapsulated by autocrats. For the reality of many people, religious nationalism is succinctly as a western moral complex, which does not really fit in this world.
India and turkey are fundamentally different states with individual ideas history and a heterogeneous population. While the colonial and division history of india promotes social conflicts to this day, the decay of the ottoman empire, the last coarse identatiturizing islamic dominance structure, is constitutively for the self -understanding and the claim of turkey and its population. Nevertheless, the mechanisms can be compared which legitimize the establishment of autocratic rule in the course of a religious nationalism.
The staging of nationalist politics as a protective shield against a supposed grafting of the company gerat to the charismatic pose, which implicitly coins to justify autocratic rule. Comparable with the product’s duct of the protest, it is possible to stabilize adhesion, attitude and behavior in a negative and demarcating pose.
In a much noted work with the right title "the passing of traditional society" propeyed the american sociologist david learner some companies of the orient in the 1950s a social emancipation to the west role model, which never entered. Learner determinist and eurocentric modernization theory is exemplary for a mental attitude that precipitates non-western intellectuals precisely and formed the basis for anti-western resentments.
The political misunderstandings are reflected in the theoretical amptions of the laizism, which are partially interpreted. The perception of sacularism as a strict separation of state and religion, which presuppose western intellectuality is characterized by eastern thinkers frequently. The renowned indian theorist rajeev bhargava briefly described the ambivalent ratio of indian intellectual to sacularism, with the formula "critical respect and principal distance" can be brought to the point.
Sacularism is particularly well suited to illustrate the divergent understanding of state conceptions in non-western societies. Of the european culture circle is often argued that the sacularism is an invention of the western civilization and implies that he will not be imposed on other cultures.
On this ideological basis, the current criticism of the laizist state conception in india and turkey can notplace traditional currents. While the indian rule of government bharatiya janata party (BJP) is closing to hindutva ideology, the ACP continues to tend to a state-praised erdogan more clearly to an islamist politics.
Turkey and decay of the ottoman empire
From the underlying time to the decay of the ottoman empire, political rule in the islamic world was always bound to religious authority. This convergence determines an islamist self -understance that determines social and political structures. The breakup of the last traditional islamic bulk after the end of the 1. World war is a drastic experience of the islamic world and has experienced the emergence of islamism as political ideology. It is no coincidence that erdogan stages as a gross muslim fuhrer in the tradition of the ottoman empire.
While the islamist ideology spread mainly from egypt, a new state conception in turkey sat down in turkey. By consistently broke the former state prosident mustafa kemal ataturk with the islamic tradition in politics, he created the basis for a modern state, whose western model was hardly culturally anchored.
Although the laizist state doktrin has a strong jerkiness in society and its institutions, she could not capture all areas of turkish society at any time. An islamist policy was always up to a certain extent. On this basis, it succeeded in religious by the AKP, political again to occupy as the islamic scientist susanne schroter formulated.
The policy of AKP turns against the laizist tradition ataturks. In a decision of the committal court, the then and today’s ruling party in 2008 only decreased just under a party prohibition. Nevertheless, a convergent understanding of religion and politics can hope for approval in vast parts of turkey.
India and the utopia of the heterogeneous national state
The dream of a hindu-dominated national state india ranges to the colonial period. The painful division of the former british india has left deep wounds that are not healed until today.
From the laizistic fehr of the fundary promater india, these experiences can be read out. The traditionally sacularly oriented congress party has always defended this heritage as a strongest political force. Nevertheless, cultural and identities were implicitly co-discussed and surprised the daily policy and legislation. The so-called staff law allows every religious group own religious compliant legislation.
With the incidence of hindutva ideology, the BJP was able to establish itself as a political opponent of the congress party as a political opponent of the congress party and take the government of the heterogeneous state in 2014. Since the re-election of the prime minister narendra modi last year, the government increasingly relies on anti-muslim rhetoric in concrete policy.
In december 2019, a reform of the immigration law of massive protest, universities turmoiled and opposition students were attacked, the anti-muslim policy of the BJP in the course of the pandemia is understood. The controversial and symbol inauguration of a hindu temple in ayodhya, the place where in 1992 the significant babi mosque was destroyed by radical hindus, is the youngest provocation and a power demonstration of fanatical hindu nationalists.
The discriminatory policy of the current government is aimed primarily against the rough muslim minority in its own country, but an anti-western pose is always with the legitimacy. The cultural hegemony of hinduism does not read other religions, but form a common sign against the grafting of sudasia. Every indian should occur for an ambitious and self-confident india.